In China there is a saying that everything starts in spring. Spring means a new beginning. It is the starting point for people to make changes. It means a change for good luck. Spring is a season full of hope. Adults make wishes that everything goes smooth and they wishes that their children grow healthy in body and mind.
  All of us are glad that winter goes at last, and are happily enjoying this first season of the year.
  
  The Song of the Four Seasons
  
  Spring: When the first rain of spring comes, I always go out for a walk with my favorite umbrella in the rain. I can hear the rain fall on the umbrella just like many spirits1 dancing on it. The raindrops knock at the earth lightly. The rain, the green rain of spring washes my heart quietly. Spring is green. The grass drinks enough, it extends its head out of the earth happily, and it looks at the world curiously. The trees turn green,and the flowers start to come out. Everything begins to grow. How beautiful! I like spring!
  Summer: It"s the hottest season of the year. It often rains heavily with the strong wind. When the rain of summer comes, the raindrops knock at everything loudly, and it is too noisy. But everything at this time grows very fast, because there is enough rain water. People wear thin clothes, it"s very hot. And summer is good for sports, for example, we can go swimming and boating. In summer, we can enjoy ourselves to eat a kind of delirious food: ice-cream! I like summer!
  Autumn: It"s a golden season. The leaves turn yellow little by little, and at last, they leave their mothers, flying in the blue sky. Their life is over. In Autumn the days get shorter and shorter, the nights get longer and longer, and the weather gets colder and colder. Sometimes there is a cold wind blowing. But Autumn is a busy and harvest season. All the farmers are very busy, because they have to harvest their crops. If you pay out, you can get a good harvest. I like Autumn.
  Winter: It"s the coldest season of the year. Almost everything dies away. Everyone wears a lot, which looks not so good, but they have to, or they"ll catch cold. Sometimes it snows. I like snowflakes. They are small, white and clean. When it snows, the snowflakes fall from the sky. Soon, the earth turns white, the trees turn white, and the tops of mountains turn white and the roofs turn white, too. What a white world! I like winter.
  I love the four seasons.
  
  注释:
  
  1.①sand storm n.沙尘暴
  ②threaten vt.威胁
  ③shoot n.嫩枝
  ④bloom vi.开花
  ⑤blossom n.鲜花
  2.①spirit n.精灵
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我们是中国人(转载)作文400字_最美中国人作文600字

自己的故事作文500字 给自己(转载)作文200字

紫叶李:新年礼物作文300字:我的新年礼物作文300

2019年10月22日 01:34

http://img1.qikan.com.cn/qkimages/yxzw/yxzw201507/yxzw20150720-1-l.jpg
  记得朱自清曾经说过:“逛南京像逛古董铺子。”确实是这样,鸡鸣寺的古幽,聚宝山的巍峨,太虚境的玄妙,总统府的宏博,雨花台的荒寂……都能给人极深的印象。行走在这片神奇的土地上,我最迷恋的还是金陵的水。
  走近玄武湖,是十二月的清晨。玄武湖边的树特别好看,树枝旁逸斜出,树叶红橙黄绿。桂花刚谢,空气中仍残留浓郁的香味。朗朗的阳光,从叶丛间泻下斑驳的碎影。游人很多,满脸灿烂的微笑。玄武湖水势浩大,碧波万顷。听说三国时孙权操练水兵就在此湖,我们还亲睹了千斤闸呢!想当年,金戈铁马,浪涛中英雄云集,如今却风平浪静。湖中已有人工建造的长堤宛转相通,更开辟了许多游玩的景点,“飞禽世界”里莺歌鹤舞,“水上乐园”里锦鳞游泳,人与自然,亲近和谐,一派其乐融融的景象。
  若把玄武湖比作大家闺秀,莫愁湖就是小家碧玉。莫愁湖位于南京西南水西门外,素有“江南第一名湖”之称。走在花木繁荫的湖畔,你会不由自主地唱出那首悠扬的歌:“莫愁湖边走,心中莫忧愁。”莫愁湖不大,身似弱柳扶风,貌若娇花照水,极秀逸极娴静。一些游人相继涉水与“莫愁”合影,我只远望了一会儿,怕扰了她的清灵。湖边是莫愁湖公园,园内曲径回廊,松竹掩映,有胜地棋楼、郁金堂、赏荷厅、美人泉等古迹,确有“至此莫愁”之感。等到我们听了莫愁女的传说:“河中之水向东流,洛阳女儿名莫愁……”知道了莫愁的善良、勇敢、刚直、忠贞、不阿权贵,最后投河自尽后,心里却忽然沉甸甸的。世间忧愁人人有,“莫愁”只是一种劝慰与愿望罢了。
  游览秦淮河,当然是在晚上。心中的秦淮河是“烟笼寒水月笼沙”的秦淮河,是“桨声灯影”里的秦淮河。眼前的秦淮河却是熙熙攘攘的,到处是影影绰绰的人影,随手抓一把空气,嚼在口中都是香的、酥的,触目皆是流光溢彩的雕栏画栋。好不容易从人缝里挤到秦淮河边,河里又是一番纸醉金迷之境。两岸火树银花,人山人海,河里华灯映水,画舫如织,整个湖面只一团纷纷然的光雾,像盒被打翻了的胭脂,一切都是腻腻的。走到朱雀桥边的乌衣巷口,除了“旧时王谢堂前燕,飞入寻常百姓家”的题词,此处已是美食的长河。我暗自感叹,是该为太平盛世的繁华喝彩,还是该为古风古韵的失落鸣屈?
  在这片写满历史的土地上,我梦一般的游玩了四天。在这个梦境里,也许我这匆匆的过客,连南京城的一粒尘埃也没有触及。梦醒时,我已在归去的列车里。遥望金陵水,已全然隐没于一片紫云瑞气之中,又像一个模糊的梦影了。
  赏析:
  本文从金陵之水切入,写南京这地方充满历史的热土,取材新颖而极富底蕴。行文时,作者或直接描写湖光山色,或用比喻与拟人等佳作彰显其美感。孙权操练水兵的情景,莫愁不阿权贵的传说,更将这块土地的神奇展示得淋漓尽致。尤其值得一说的是,作者没有满足于表面的描写,而是在展示景观风采与挖掘历史底蕴的同时,自然地融入了独特的自我感悟。也正是这种感悟,让文章有了思想的深度。


  Spring is Coming
  
  Spring comes with its slow step. After a long and hard winter, spring comes at last. The spring in my town is fighting its way to come. After the Spring Festival, the weather at first seems to become warmer, but a week or two later, winter with its coldness is back again. The sky turns into a gray color and people have to put on their winter clothes again. We are back in winter.
  After the coldness, spring wind begins to blow. It is strong, very strong wind. It blows hard. People in the street are having difficulty walking or riding bikes. You feel that spring in my town is too bad. It is hard to breathe, for the air is full of dust and sand. Everywhere the sky is hard to see. During this time weather forecast warns people not to go outside if they could. This hard wind comes from the north, and it stops the warm wind from the south. Recently a kind of sand storm1 threatens2 the city. If that weather comes, the strong wind almost makes everything impossible.
  After wind the weather takes another turn, and begins to grow warm. This time it"s true that we see spring come after all the trouble. The sky becomes clear,and the air is fresh.It turns warmer and warmer. Children and adults are everywhere in the garden or park enjoying the sun. Green leaves and shoots3 are beginning to come out. Flowers are starting to bloom4 at this time. Blossoms5 are soon seen here and there. Everything looks fresh.
  In China there is a saying that everything starts in spring. Spring means a new beginning. It is the starting point for people to make changes. It means a change for good luck. Spring is a season full of hope. Adults make wishes that everything goes smooth and they wishes that their children grow healthy in body and mind.
  All of us are glad that winter goes at last, and are happily enjoying this first season of the year.
  
  The Song of the Four Seasons
  
  Spring: When the first rain of spring comes, I always go out for a walk with my favorite umbrella in the rain. I can hear the rain fall on the umbrella just like many spirits1 dancing on it. The raindrops knock at the earth lightly. The rain, the green rain of spring washes my heart quietly. Spring is green. The grass drinks enough, it extends its head out of the earth happily, and it looks at the world curiously. The trees turn green,and the flowers start to come out. Everything begins to grow. How beautiful! I like spring!
  Summer: It"s the hottest season of the year. It often rains heavily with the strong wind. When the rain of summer comes, the raindrops knock at everything loudly, and it is too noisy. But everything at this time grows very fast, because there is enough rain water. People wear thin clothes, it"s very hot. And summer is good for sports, for example, we can go swimming and boating. In summer, we can enjoy ourselves to eat a kind of delirious food: ice-cream! I like summer!
  Autumn: It"s a golden season. The leaves turn yellow little by little, and at last, they leave their mothers, flying in the blue sky. Their life is over. In Autumn the days get shorter and shorter, the nights get longer and longer, and the weather gets colder and colder. Sometimes there is a cold wind blowing. But Autumn is a busy and harvest season. All the farmers are very busy, because they have to harvest their crops. If you pay out, you can get a good harvest. I like Autumn.
  Winter: It"s the coldest season of the year. Almost everything dies away. Everyone wears a lot, which looks not so good, but they have to, or they"ll catch cold. Sometimes it snows. I like snowflakes. They are small, white and clean. When it snows, the snowflakes fall from the sky. Soon, the earth turns white, the trees turn white, and the tops of mountains turn white and the roofs turn white, too. What a white world! I like winter.
  I love the four seasons.
  
  注释:
  
  1.①sand storm n.沙尘暴
  ②threaten vt.威胁
  ③shoot n.嫩枝
  ④bloom vi.开花
  ⑤blossom n.鲜花
  2.①spirit n.精灵
紫叶李
  There was once a hunter, who, in passing a quarry, found a serpent under a large stone. The serpent asked the hunter to free him, but the hunter said, "I will not free you, for you will eat me."
  The serpent replied,"Free me,for I will not eat you.
  When the hunter had set the serpent free, the snake wanted to devour him, but the hunter said, "What are you doing? Did you not promise me that you would not eat me?"
  The serpent replied that the hunger did not observe promises.
  The hunter then said, "If you have no reason to eat me, will you do it?"
  "No," answered the serpent.
  "Let us go, then," said the hunter, "and ask three times."
  They went into the woods and found a grey hound, and asked him, and he replied, "I had a master, and I went hunting and caught hares, and when I carried them home, my master had nothing good to give me to eat. Now, when I cannot overtake even a tortoise, because I am old, my master wishes to kill me. For this reason I condemn you to be eaten by the serpent, for he who does good finds evil."
  "Do you hear? We have one judge," said the serpent. They continued their journey,and found a horse,and asked him, and he too replied that the serpent was right to eat the man, "for," he said, "I had a master who fed me when I could travel.Now that I can do so no longer, he would like to hang me."
  The serpent said, "Behold, two judges!"
  They went on and found a fox.The hunter said, "Fox, you must aid me.Listen: I was passing quarry and found this serpent dying under a large stone, and he asked aid from me, and I released him, and now he wants to eat me."
  The fox answered, "I will be the judge. Let us return to the quarry to see how the serpent was."
  They went there and put the stone on the serpent, and the fox asked, "Is that the way you were?"
  "Yes," answered the serpent.
  "Very well then, stay so always!" said the fox.
  
  有个猎人经过一个采石场,看见大石头下压着一条蛇。蛇请求猎人把他解救出来,但猎人说:“我不会解救你的,因为你会吃掉我。”
  蛇说:“解救我吧,我不会吃你的。”
  猎人把蛇从石头底下救出来后,蛇就想吃掉猎人。猎人说:“你这是干什么?你不是许诺了,说不会吃我吗?”
  蛇反而说是猎人没有遵守诺言。
  猎人说:“如果你没理由吃掉我,你还会那样做吗?”
  “不会的。”蛇回答道。
  “那么,走吧,”猎人说,“让我们找三个裁判来作一番评判吧。”
  他们走进树林子,遇见了一只猎狗,于是就请他评判是非。猎狗答道:“我有过这样一个主人,我狩猎打到了兔子,把兔子叼回家,主人并不因此赏我好东西吃。现在我老了,老得连一只乌龟都追不上的时候,主人还想杀了我。因此,希望蛇把你吃掉,因为做善事者得恶报。”
  “你听见了吗?我们有了一个裁决。”蛇说。他们继续往前走,又遇见了一匹马。他们让这匹马来作评判,马也说蛇应该吃掉猎人,“因为,”他说,“以前我有一个主人,在我能跑得动时,他养我喂我。现在我跑不动了,他就要把我勒死。”
  蛇说:“瞧,我们有了两个裁决了!”
  他们继续往前走,又遇上了一只狐狸。猎人说:“狐狸,你必须帮助我。听着:我经过了一个采石场,看见这只蛇被压在一块大石头下,奄奄待毙。他乞求我的帮助,我把他从石头下解救了出来,现在他却想吃掉我。”
  狐狸说:“我来为你们作判决。我们回到采石场去,看看蛇原来处于什么状况。”
  他们回到了采石场,把那块大石头压到了蛇的身上,狐狸问:“你原来就是这样?”
  “是的。”蛇答道。
  狐狸说:“很好,你就永远这样待下去吧!”


  Spring is Coming
  
  Spring comes with its slow step. After a long and hard winter, spring comes at last. The spring in my town is fighting its way to come. After the Spring Festival, the weather at first seems to become warmer, but a week or two later, winter with its coldness is back again. The sky turns into a gray color and people have to put on their winter clothes again. We are back in winter.
  After the coldness, spring wind begins to blow. It is strong, very strong wind. It blows hard. People in the street are having difficulty walking or riding bikes. You feel that spring in my town is too bad. It is hard to breathe, for the air is full of dust and sand. Everywhere the sky is hard to see. During this time weather forecast warns people not to go outside if they could. This hard wind comes from the north, and it stops the warm wind from the south. Recently a kind of sand storm1 threatens2 the city. If that weather comes, the strong wind almost makes everything impossible.
  After wind the weather takes another turn, and begins to grow warm. This time it"s true that we see spring come after all the trouble. The sky becomes clear,and the air is fresh.It turns warmer and warmer. Children and adults are everywhere in the garden or park enjoying the sun. Green leaves and shoots3 are beginning to come out. Flowers are starting to bloom4 at this time. Blossoms5 are soon seen here and there. Everything looks fresh.
  In China there is a saying that everything starts in spring. Spring means a new beginning. It is the starting point for people to make changes. It means a change for good luck. Spring is a season full of hope. Adults make wishes that everything goes smooth and they wishes that their children grow healthy in body and mind.
  All of us are glad that winter goes at last, and are happily enjoying this first season of the year.
  
  The Song of the Four Seasons
  
  Spring: When the first rain of spring comes, I always go out for a walk with my favorite umbrella in the rain. I can hear the rain fall on the umbrella just like many spirits1 dancing on it. The raindrops knock at the earth lightly. The rain, the green rain of spring washes my heart quietly. Spring is green. The grass drinks enough, it extends its head out of the earth happily, and it looks at the world curiously. The trees turn green,and the flowers start to come out. Everything begins to grow. How beautiful! I like spring!
  Summer: It"s the hottest season of the year. It often rains heavily with the strong wind. When the rain of summer comes, the raindrops knock at everything loudly, and it is too noisy. But everything at this time grows very fast, because there is enough rain water. People wear thin clothes, it"s very hot. And summer is good for sports, for example, we can go swimming and boating. In summer, we can enjoy ourselves to eat a kind of delirious food: ice-cream! I like summer!
  Autumn: It"s a golden season. The leaves turn yellow little by little, and at last, they leave their mothers, flying in the blue sky. Their life is over. In Autumn the days get shorter and shorter, the nights get longer and longer, and the weather gets colder and colder. Sometimes there is a cold wind blowing. But Autumn is a busy and harvest season. All the farmers are very busy, because they have to harvest their crops. If you pay out, you can get a good harvest. I like Autumn.
  Winter: It"s the coldest season of the year. Almost everything dies away. Everyone wears a lot, which looks not so good, but they have to, or they"ll catch cold. Sometimes it snows. I like snowflakes. They are small, white and clean. When it snows, the snowflakes fall from the sky. Soon, the earth turns white, the trees turn white, and the tops of mountains turn white and the roofs turn white, too. What a white world! I like winter.
  I love the four seasons.
  
  注释:
  
  1.①sand storm n.沙尘暴
  ②threaten vt.威胁
  ③shoot n.嫩枝
  ④bloom vi.开花
  ⑤blossom n.鲜花
  2.①spirit n.精灵
紫叶李
  The first day of school our professor introduced himself and challenged us to get to know someone we didn"t know. I stood up to look around when a gentle hand touched my shoulder. I turned around to find a winkled, little old lady beaming1 up at me with a smile that lit up her entire being. She said, "Hi, handsome. My name is Rose. I"m eighty-seven years old. Can I give you a hug?" I laughed and enthusiastically responded, "Of course you may!" and she gave me a giant squeeze.
  "Why are you in college at such a young, innocent age?" I asked. She jokingly replied, "I"m here to meet a rich husband, get married, have a couple of children, and then retire and travel.""No, seriously?" I asked. I was curious what may have motivated her to be taking on this challenge at her age.
  "I always dreamed of having a college education and now I"m getting one!" she told me. After class we walked to the student union building and shared a chocolate milkshake. We became instant friends. Everyday for the next three months we would leave class together and talk nonstop. I was always, mesmerizd2 listening to this "time machine" as she shared her wisdom and experience with me.
  Over the course of the year, Rose became a campus icon and she easily made friends wherever she went. She loved to dress up and she reveled in the attention bestowed3 up her from the other students. She was living it up4. At the end of the semester we invited Rose to speak at our football banquet. I"ll never forget what she taught us. She was introduced and stepped up to the podium. As she began to deliver her prepared speech, she dropped her cards on the floor. Frustrated and a little embarrassed she leaned into the microphone and simply said, "I"m sorry I"m so jittery. I gave up beer for Lent5 and this whisky is killing me! I"ll never get my speech back in order so let me just tell you what I know." As we laughed she cleared her throat and began, "We do not stop playing because we are old; we grow old because we stop playing. There are only four secrets to staying young, being happy, and achieving success."
  "You have to laugh and find humor every day."
  "You"ve got to have a dream. When you lose your dreams, you die. We have so many people walking around who are dead and don"t even know it!"
  "There is a huge difference between growing older and growing up. If you are nineteen years old and lie in bed for one full year and don"t do one productive thing, you will turn twenty years old. If I am eighty-seven years old and stay in bed for a year and never do anything I will turn eighty-eight. Anybody can grow older. That doesn"t take any talent or ability. The idea is to grow up by always finding the opportunity in change."
  "Have no regrets. The elderly usually don"t have regrets for what we did, but rather for things we did not do. The only people who fear death are those with regrets."
  She concluded her speech by courageously singing "The Rose." She challenged each of us to study the lyrics and live them out6 in our daily lives.

紫叶李:读书的乐趣作文100字:关于乐趣的作文100字


  (一)
  Mr Lewis was a dance teacher. He was a nice man and always had a lot of students. One year he moved to a new town, and was soon teaching a lot of students in the dance school there, but he decided(决定)to move again to a big city. "I"ll have more work there," he thought.
  When one of his women students heard that he was going to leave, she said to him,"The teacher to take your classes won"t be as good as you are."
  Mr Lewis was happy when he heard this, but he said ,"Oh, no! I"m sure he"ll be as good as I or even (甚至)better."
  But she said,"No, five teachers have come and gone while I"ve been here, and each one was worse than the last one."
  
  1. Mr Lewis moved to a new town and _______ there.
   A. had a lot of men studentsB. taught dance
   C. became a dance teacherD. lived in a dance school
  2. Then he decided to move to a big city because _______ .
   A. the students weren"t worth teaching
   B. the students didn"t like him
   C. he wanted to teach more students
   D. he couldn"t teach here any longer
  3. He thought that _______ .
   A. the woman student liked him very much
   B. the woman student was really a good one
   C. he was the best teacher
   D. no one could be better than he
  4. The woman student thought ______ of all the six teachers.
   A. he did the best in teaching
   B. he did the worst in teaching
   C. he was as good as anyone
   D. he danced better than anyone
  5. What the woman student said at last means _______ .
   A. she didn"t like him to leave
   B. the seventh teacher would be as good as Mr Lewis
   C. the seventh teacher would be even better than Mr Lewis
   D. the seventh teacher would be even worse than Mr Lewis
  
  (二)
  Dentists always ask questions that it is impossible for people to answer. One day,Mr Barber"s dentist has just pulled out one of his teeth and told him to rest for a while. He tried to say something, but his mouth was full of cotton wool(药棉). The dentist knew Barber collected bird"s eggs, and asked him whether his collection was growing. He then asked Barber how Mr Barber"s brother was and whether he liked his new job in London. In answer to these questions, Mr Barber either nodded or made strange noises. Meanwhile(与此同时), Mr Barber"s tongue(舌头) was busy searching out the hole where the tooth had been. He suddenly felt worried, but couldn"t say anything. When the dentist at last removed the cotton wool from Barber"s mouth, he was able to tell the dentist that he had pulled out the wrong tooth.
  
  1. The dentist in the story had pulled out _______ of Barber"s teeth.
   A. two B. threeC. fourD. one
  2. Mr Barber could answer the questions, couldn"t he?
   A. Yes, he could. B. Yes, he couldn"tC. No, he couldn"tD. No, he could.
  3. Mr Barber"s mouth was full of _______ .
   A. water B. cotton C. teeth D. tongues
  4. What did Mr Barber find at last?
   A. He found a good tooth was pulled out.
   B. He found what the dentist did was right.
紫叶李
  人们往往会用“呆若木鸡”形容一个人有些呆头呆脑、痴傻发愣的样子。然而,“呆若木鸡”最初的含义和现在的用法没有丝毫关系,反倒是一个褒义词。
  “呆若木鸡”出自《庄子·达生》,原本是个寓言。故事讲的是,因为齐王爱好斗鸡,一个叫纪渻子的人就专门为齐王训练斗鸡。过了十天,齐王问纪渻子是否训练好了,纪渻子回答说还没有,这只鸡表面看起来气势汹汹的,其实没有什么底气。又过了十天,齐王再次询问,纪渻子说还不行,因为它一看到别的鸡的影子,马上就紧张起来,说明还有好斗的心理。又过了十天,齐王忍耐不住,再次去问,但还是不行,因为纪渻子认为这只鸡还有些目光炯炯,气势未消。这样又过了十天,纪渻子终于说差不多了,它已经有些呆头呆脑、不动声色,看上去就像木头鸡一样,说明它已经进入完美的精神境界了。齐王就把这只鸡放进斗鸡场。别的鸡一看到这只“呆若木鸡”的斗鸡,掉头就逃。
  “呆若木鸡”不是真呆,只是看着呆,实际上却有很强的战斗力,貌似木头的斗鸡根本不必出击,就令其他的斗鸡望风而逃。可见,斗鸡的最高境界是“呆若木鸡”。


  Before, very few foreigners visited the southern foot of Himalayas. Then, many Japanese went there. It is said that this is because of the honesty of a small boy. One day, some Japanese photographers asked a local boy to buy some bottles of beer, which took the boy three hours. The next day, the boy volunteered to buy for them. The photographer gave him a lot of money. But the boy did not return until the afternoon of the third day. So thephotographers began to talk about it and thought they were cheated by the boy. The third night, the boy knocked the door of the photographer. The boy told them that he bought four bottles of beer at one store, and then he climbed another mountain and crossed a river to buy the other six. On the way back, three bottles of them were broken, he cried and brought the broken pieces of bottles to the photographer and gave him the small changes. The people there were moved, which moved more people. Then more travelers came to the place.
  
  早年,喜马拉雅山南麓很少有外国人涉足。后来,许多日本人到这里观光旅游,据说,这是源于一位少年的诚信。一天,几位日本摄影师请当地一位少年代买啤酒,这位少年为之跑了3个多小时。第二天,那个少年又自告奋勇地再替他们买啤酒。这次摄影师们给了他很多钱,但直到第三天下午那个少年还没回来。于是,摄影师们议论纷纷,都认为那个少年把钱骗走了。第三天夜里,那个少年却敲开了摄影师的门。原来,他只购得4瓶啤酒,尔后,他又翻了一座山,趟过一条河才购得另外6瓶,返回时摔坏了3瓶。他哭着拿着碎玻璃片,向摄影师交回零钱,在场的人无不动容。这个故事使许多外国人深受感动。后来,到这儿的游客就越来越多……
紫叶李
  摘 要:本文探讨狭义的“语文阅读”,指学生利用在校的学习时间进行的短文阅读,主要目标就是理解文本内容,并能通过书面语言表达的语文阅读。从初中语文阅读教学的生态场的视角,观察语文教学的要素——学生、教师、阅读材料、语文考试及这些要素之间相互作用构成的时空范围及思考。
  关键词:初中语文;阅读教学;生态场;观察 思考
  生态系统中各种因素间相互影响、相互制约的空间存在,生态学上称之为生态场。自然界中任何物体都不是鼓励存在的,他们之间存在普遍的相互作用并以场的形式实现。1本文借用这个概念,分析一下语文阅读教学时空范围内各要素的相互关系。本文探讨的“语文阅读”,是相对狭义的,特指学生利用在校的教学时间进行的短文阅读训练,主要目标就是理解文本内容,并能通过书面语言表达的阅读,换句话说就是通过这个阅读教学,学生能够做一些阅读理解的题目。语文阅读生态场,包括以下一些相互作用的因素:学生、教师、阅读材料、阅读题目,教师对学生的了解,学生对阅读材料的了解。
  1.学生:重视程度不够,投入产出比低
  学生喜欢阅读吗?当然喜欢。没看见许多学生挑灯夜读,偷偷摸摸读,下课读,放学读,尽管常常因此吃了不少苦头,可是痴心不改。不是让人感动,而是让人无奈:他们不务正业。学生喜欢的是没有题目的阅读、不用考试的阅读,一旦阅读与考试联系起来,就会让人生厌、无所适从。发生在办公室的一则语文笑话是这样的:几个老师在争论《西游记》中是谁牵的马,谁挑的担2。有办公室同事(非语文老师)突然问正在争论的语文老师,猪八戒和蜘蛛精洗澡的时候,看见了几条腿?语文老师是不敢回答的,因为蜘蛛精必定是八条腿,可是猪八戒喜欢的是两条腿的美女。天哪,救救可怜的语文老师吧。语文老师也得出了结论,名著阅读一旦和考试联系起来,就是名著苦读了。语文考试中的怪题怪答案不胜枚举。
  更可恨的是,语文学习效率低,投入产出比低。数学、物理等能力型学习、考试,学生只要掌握一种类型题目,就能触类旁通;历史等记忆性学科,学生只要下功夫记,记住了多少,考试一般就能发挥多少,往往立竿见影。而语文学习却不是这样,花了功夫,往往不见效果,即使在考试前做了不少阅读理解题,考试没有考到(一般是考不到的),就会没有多少效果。学生对那些看得见的学习,自己能把握的学习,能够投入持久的热情,愿意花大量的时间,而对语文学习,尤其是阅读理解的学习则重视程度不够。
  2.教师:课堂教学不充分,有限的课堂做了大量无用功
  每天一节语文课,学生得不到语文素养的提升,而是针对语文考试做了大量无用功,师生浪费了大量时间识记语文课本上的相关答案,枯燥而低效,虽然师生都明白答案永远背不完,但是谁能不背呢?万一考到了书上的题目,如果教师没有讲到,或者学生没有记住答案,分数就会比别的班级低很多。于是大多语文老师宁可舍本逐末,而不能放弃那些并没有太大用途的讲答案、记答案的无用工作。
  叶圣陶先生讲,课文无非是例子。告诉我们应该是通过教学课文来达成具体的教学目标(知识积累目标,能力提升目标和情感态度目标),以通过“教”而达到“不教”的最终目的。可是很多时候,课文教学被语文老师当作教学的目标,于是“课文”永远都讲不完、教不完,学生疲惫,教师也疲惫,可是离开了老师学生什么都不会。悲!
  3.阅读材料:教考脱节,导致师生无处适应
  语文老师常常抱怨:我讲的人家不考,人家考的我讲不到。对于课文的详尽分析,教师既把课文当作教学的例子,也把课文当作教学的目标,在有限的时间里,完成课文教学已经很紧张了,根本没有时间再去进行拓展训练,导致了学生在语文课堂上涉及到的面不广。学生读得少,操练得少,既没有掌握解题方法,也没有提高解题水平,到了考试的时候,信手随写,全无章法,得分自然就很低。
  语文教学的乱象就在于此。教师不知道自己的期末考试会考什么,学生也不知道自己的语文学习会得到怎样的结果,付出了却可能得不到回报。语文教学大纲中有这样一句话:“要避免繁琐的分析和琐碎机械的练习”。面对这样的考试,师生最功利的做法就是花大量的时间在课文的繁琐分析和琐碎机械的练习,并且缩短学生对其他材料的阅读。
  4.语文考试:教学是小语文,考试是大语文
  现在的语文界,说的是大语文,做的是小语文。现在的语文课堂,是小语文的课堂,教学内容针对的是教材,教学形式主要是对课本进行“深入”的分析(基于教参),学生学习的途径以识记为主,偶尔伴有语文的能力训练。可是到了考试的时候,却又变成了“大语文”。随手翻出一份语文试卷,没有不是大语文的。以一份2012某市中考语文试卷为例:除作文外,70分的语文试卷,只有18分是直接出自书上的,即第1、2、3题是考字词和诗文名句默写,共18分,是小语文。其他题目都应该大语文,第4题,名著阅读,是大语文,考试内容是《西游记》和《格列佛游记》共5分;第5题,语言运用题,也是大语文,3分;第10题,课外文言文阅读,翻译两个句子,共4分,也是大语文的范围。最让师生为难的是,还有16分是所谓的课内阅读题(文言文8分,第6、7、8、9题,现代文8分,第11、12、13题),是基于学生对课文及书本知识的积累和理解,老师必须要讲透、练足,才有可能做得好,否则不容易得分。这样一份试卷,既兼顾到课文的教学,注重知识的积累,又突出学生能力为先的发展目标。可是这种理想的状态却很难做到。
  思考:眼中看树木,心中存森林
  后识字教育阶段的语文教学,阅读能力的培养是一个重要的教学内容。单独研究语文阅读教学,是一门重要学问。作为一线语文老师,当然不能把阅读教学理解为课文教学,而要从语文阅读教学这个生态场中的几个要素之间的相互作用和促进来思考,就像农学家研究生态场中的阳光、雨水、土壤及作物的相互作用那样,协调各要素之间的关系,促进农业发展、保护生态环境。
  顾黄初先生指出:“语文教学的改革,关键在贴近生活,这是‘根’”。特级教师张孝纯提出“大语文教育”的主张,他强调语文教育应把视线扩展到校内外的语文课外活动与学校、家庭、社会三个方面的语文环境。湖北宜昌的“课内外衔接实验”,山东高密一中的“语文实验室计划”等成功探索,给语文老师以启示,在我们的阅读教学中,不要眼中只有树木而没有森林。几篇课文、几本教材毫无疑问只是树木,然学生喜欢阅读,拥抱森林才是解决问题的关键所在。
  (Endnotes)
  1 2 一份语文期末试卷的名著阅读题。电视里是八戒牵马,沙僧挑担;吴承恩的原著大多是八戒挑担,沙僧牵马。

紫叶李:遇上你是我的幸运作文600字【遇上你作文100字】


  摘 要:本文探讨狭义的“语文阅读”,指学生利用在校的学习时间进行的短文阅读,主要目标就是理解文本内容,并能通过书面语言表达的语文阅读。从初中语文阅读教学的生态场的视角,观察语文教学的要素——学生、教师、阅读材料、语文考试及这些要素之间相互作用构成的时空范围及思考。
  关键词:初中语文;阅读教学;生态场;观察 思考
  生态系统中各种因素间相互影响、相互制约的空间存在,生态学上称之为生态场。自然界中任何物体都不是鼓励存在的,他们之间存在普遍的相互作用并以场的形式实现。1本文借用这个概念,分析一下语文阅读教学时空范围内各要素的相互关系。本文探讨的“语文阅读”,是相对狭义的,特指学生利用在校的教学时间进行的短文阅读训练,主要目标就是理解文本内容,并能通过书面语言表达的阅读,换句话说就是通过这个阅读教学,学生能够做一些阅读理解的题目。语文阅读生态场,包括以下一些相互作用的因素:学生、教师、阅读材料、阅读题目,教师对学生的了解,学生对阅读材料的了解。
  1.学生:重视程度不够,投入产出比低
  学生喜欢阅读吗?当然喜欢。没看见许多学生挑灯夜读,偷偷摸摸读,下课读,放学读,尽管常常因此吃了不少苦头,可是痴心不改。不是让人感动,而是让人无奈:他们不务正业。学生喜欢的是没有题目的阅读、不用考试的阅读,一旦阅读与考试联系起来,就会让人生厌、无所适从。发生在办公室的一则语文笑话是这样的:几个老师在争论《西游记》中是谁牵的马,谁挑的担2。有办公室同事(非语文老师)突然问正在争论的语文老师,猪八戒和蜘蛛精洗澡的时候,看见了几条腿?语文老师是不敢回答的,因为蜘蛛精必定是八条腿,可是猪八戒喜欢的是两条腿的美女。天哪,救救可怜的语文老师吧。语文老师也得出了结论,名著阅读一旦和考试联系起来,就是名著苦读了。语文考试中的怪题怪答案不胜枚举。
  更可恨的是,语文学习效率低,投入产出比低。数学、物理等能力型学习、考试,学生只要掌握一种类型题目,就能触类旁通;历史等记忆性学科,学生只要下功夫记,记住了多少,考试一般就能发挥多少,往往立竿见影。而语文学习却不是这样,花了功夫,往往不见效果,即使在考试前做了不少阅读理解题,考试没有考到(一般是考不到的),就会没有多少效果。学生对那些看得见的学习,自己能把握的学习,能够投入持久的热情,愿意花大量的时间,而对语文学习,尤其是阅读理解的学习则重视程度不够。
  2.教师:课堂教学不充分,有限的课堂做了大量无用功
  每天一节语文课,学生得不到语文素养的提升,而是针对语文考试做了大量无用功,师生浪费了大量时间识记语文课本上的相关答案,枯燥而低效,虽然师生都明白答案永远背不完,但是谁能不背呢?万一考到了书上的题目,如果教师没有讲到,或者学生没有记住答案,分数就会比别的班级低很多。于是大多语文老师宁可舍本逐末,而不能放弃那些并没有太大用途的讲答案、记答案的无用工作。
  叶圣陶先生讲,课文无非是例子。告诉我们应该是通过教学课文来达成具体的教学目标(知识积累目标,能力提升目标和情感态度目标),以通过“教”而达到“不教”的最终目的。可是很多时候,课文教学被语文老师当作教学的目标,于是“课文”永远都讲不完、教不完,学生疲惫,教师也疲惫,可是离开了老师学生什么都不会。悲!
  3.阅读材料:教考脱节,导致师生无处适应
  语文老师常常抱怨:我讲的人家不考,人家考的我讲不到。对于课文的详尽分析,教师既把课文当作教学的例子,也把课文当作教学的目标,在有限的时间里,完成课文教学已经很紧张了,根本没有时间再去进行拓展训练,导致了学生在语文课堂上涉及到的面不广。学生读得少,操练得少,既没有掌握解题方法,也没有提高解题水平,到了考试的时候,信手随写,全无章法,得分自然就很低。
  语文教学的乱象就在于此。教师不知道自己的期末考试会考什么,学生也不知道自己的语文学习会得到怎样的结果,付出了却可能得不到回报。语文教学大纲中有这样一句话:“要避免繁琐的分析和琐碎机械的练习”。面对这样的考试,师生最功利的做法就是花大量的时间在课文的繁琐分析和琐碎机械的练习,并且缩短学生对其他材料的阅读。
  4.语文考试:教学是小语文,考试是大语文
  现在的语文界,说的是大语文,做的是小语文。现在的语文课堂,是小语文的课堂,教学内容针对的是教材,教学形式主要是对课本进行“深入”的分析(基于教参),学生学习的途径以识记为主,偶尔伴有语文的能力训练。可是到了考试的时候,却又变成了“大语文”。随手翻出一份语文试卷,没有不是大语文的。以一份2012某市中考语文试卷为例:除作文外,70分的语文试卷,只有18分是直接出自书上的,即第1、2、3题是考字词和诗文名句默写,共18分,是小语文。其他题目都应该大语文,第4题,名著阅读,是大语文,考试内容是《西游记》和《格列佛游记》共5分;第5题,语言运用题,也是大语文,3分;第10题,课外文言文阅读,翻译两个句子,共4分,也是大语文的范围。最让师生为难的是,还有16分是所谓的课内阅读题(文言文8分,第6、7、8、9题,现代文8分,第11、12、13题),是基于学生对课文及书本知识的积累和理解,老师必须要讲透、练足,才有可能做得好,否则不容易得分。这样一份试卷,既兼顾到课文的教学,注重知识的积累,又突出学生能力为先的发展目标。可是这种理想的状态却很难做到。
  思考:眼中看树木,心中存森林
  后识字教育阶段的语文教学,阅读能力的培养是一个重要的教学内容。单独研究语文阅读教学,是一门重要学问。作为一线语文老师,当然不能把阅读教学理解为课文教学,而要从语文阅读教学这个生态场中的几个要素之间的相互作用和促进来思考,就像农学家研究生态场中的阳光、雨水、土壤及作物的相互作用那样,协调各要素之间的关系,促进农业发展、保护生态环境。
  顾黄初先生指出:“语文教学的改革,关键在贴近生活,这是‘根’”。特级教师张孝纯提出“大语文教育”的主张,他强调语文教育应把视线扩展到校内外的语文课外活动与学校、家庭、社会三个方面的语文环境。湖北宜昌的“课内外衔接实验”,山东高密一中的“语文实验室计划”等成功探索,给语文老师以启示,在我们的阅读教学中,不要眼中只有树木而没有森林。几篇课文、几本教材毫无疑问只是树木,然学生喜欢阅读,拥抱森林才是解决问题的关键所在。
  (Endnotes)
  1 2 一份语文期末试卷的名著阅读题。电视里是八戒牵马,沙僧挑担;吴承恩的原著大多是八戒挑担,沙僧牵马。紫叶李
  Leave Room for a Change
  
  The son was too straightforward in what he said and never knew how to leave room for a change.About this, his father was worried.He decided to help his son."Remember to speak in another way round.Never be too straightforward and rigid." the father told him.
  Not knowing what his father meant, the boy blinked and kept silent.
  However, the father was patient.He tried to teach the dull boy again and again."For example," the father explained. "What did you say when the neighbor came to borrow things yesterday? You said " No, we haven"t." That won"t do.That"s too rigid.If anyone comes to borrow something next time, do not say "No, we haven"t", nor "Yes,we have. "Just say "Some of them are at home. Some are not." That"s a good way to speak. Can you remember?"
  The son seemed to understand.
  A few days later, a man came and called on them.
  "Is your father at home?" the man asked.
  The boy kept silent for a moment, thinking of what his father had taught him, and then replied calmly, "Some of them are at home. Some are not."
  
  儿子说话很直,从来不知道说话要留有余地。爸爸为此很担心,于是决定好好地教导教导儿子。他对儿子说:“以后说话一定要灵活些,千万不要把话说得太绝对。”
  儿子还不太明白其中的道理,只好眨巴着眼睛看着爸爸。
  不过,爸爸很有耐心,他不厌其烦地一遍遍开导这个迟钝的孩子。他对儿子解释说:“比如说吧,昨天邻居来借东西,你是怎么说的?你说:‘没有!’这可不行,话说得太绝对了。今后如果再遇到这类事情,不要直接说‘没有’,也不要说‘有’。就说‘有的在家,有的不在家’。这就把话说灵活了。记住了吗?”
  儿子似乎明白了。
  几天后,他家来了一位客人。
  “你爸爸在家吗?”客人问道。
  儿子默默地思考了一下爸爸对他的教导,然后非常镇静地回答说:“有的在家,有的不在家。”

紫叶李:猫的作文400字_致猫作文200字


  (一)
  Mr Lewis was a dance teacher. He was a nice man and always had a lot of students. One year he moved to a new town, and was soon teaching a lot of students in the dance school there, but he decided(决定)to move again to a big city. "I"ll have more work there," he thought.
  When one of his women students heard that he was going to leave, she said to him,"The teacher to take your classes won"t be as good as you are."
  Mr Lewis was happy when he heard this, but he said ,"Oh, no! I"m sure he"ll be as good as I or even (甚至)better."
  But she said,"No, five teachers have come and gone while I"ve been here, and each one was worse than the last one."
  
  1. Mr Lewis moved to a new town and _______ there.
   A. had a lot of men studentsB. taught dance
   C. became a dance teacherD. lived in a dance school
  2. Then he decided to move to a big city because _______ .
   A. the students weren"t worth teaching
   B. the students didn"t like him
   C. he wanted to teach more students
   D. he couldn"t teach here any longer
  3. He thought that _______ .
   A. the woman student liked him very much
   B. the woman student was really a good one
   C. he was the best teacher
   D. no one could be better than he
  4. The woman student thought ______ of all the six teachers.
   A. he did the best in teaching
   B. he did the worst in teaching
   C. he was as good as anyone
   D. he danced better than anyone
  5. What the woman student said at last means _______ .
   A. she didn"t like him to leave
   B. the seventh teacher would be as good as Mr Lewis
   C. the seventh teacher would be even better than Mr Lewis
   D. the seventh teacher would be even worse than Mr Lewis
  
  (二)
  Dentists always ask questions that it is impossible for people to answer. One day,Mr Barber"s dentist has just pulled out one of his teeth and told him to rest for a while. He tried to say something, but his mouth was full of cotton wool(药棉). The dentist knew Barber collected bird"s eggs, and asked him whether his collection was growing. He then asked Barber how Mr Barber"s brother was and whether he liked his new job in London. In answer to these questions, Mr Barber either nodded or made strange noises. Meanwhile(与此同时), Mr Barber"s tongue(舌头) was busy searching out the hole where the tooth had been. He suddenly felt worried, but couldn"t say anything. When the dentist at last removed the cotton wool from Barber"s mouth, he was able to tell the dentist that he had pulled out the wrong tooth.
  
  1. The dentist in the story had pulled out _______ of Barber"s teeth.
   A. two B. threeC. fourD. one
  2. Mr Barber could answer the questions, couldn"t he?
   A. Yes, he could. B. Yes, he couldn"tC. No, he couldn"tD. No, he could.
  3. Mr Barber"s mouth was full of _______ .
   A. water B. cotton C. teeth D. tongues
  4. What did Mr Barber find at last?
   A. He found a good tooth was pulled out.
   B. He found what the dentist did was right.

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